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Caldwell Community College & Technical Institute
Last Update: 3/29/16 4
When directly quoting from a work, be sure to include the author, year of publication, and page
number in the citation. Begin the quotation with an introductory, or signal, phrase. An
introductory phrase includes the author’s name, and/or title of the source. If the author’s name is
used within the introductory phrase, follow this phrase with the publication date in parentheses.
If the author’s name is not used, the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page
numbers will be placed in parentheses after the quotation.
With author’s name in signal phrase:
According to Johnson (2009), “eye injuries often occur at work, during recreational activities
and while performing routine household chores” (p. 17).
Without author’s name in signal phrase:
He says, “It’s important to wear protective eye-wear,” but does not state where to purchase
said eye-wear (Johnson, 2009, p. 17).
Quotations longer than 40 words will be set up in a block quotation, omitting quotation marks.
To begin, type a signal phrase followed by a colon. The quotation begins on a new line and is
indented one tab button (like a paragraph indention). Block quotes will continue to be double
spaced. (Note: The period will come before the citation in the block form of quotations only).
When speaking of eye protection, Johnson (2009) states the following:
According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, about 2,000 U.S.
workers suffer job-related eye injuries that require medical treatment each day.
Wearing protective eye gear—such as goggles, face shields and safety glasses— can
reduce the severity of these injuries or even prevent up to 90 percent of them. (p. 17)
Summary or Paraphrase
If you are not directly quoting the work but paraphrasing an idea from the work, you are still
required to cite the source.
o According to Johnson (2009), the eye’s exposure to sun can cause the development of
many diseases of the eye.
o The eye’s exposure to sun can cause the development of many diseases of the eye