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Caldwell Community College & Technical Institute
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When using information quoted from another source, the original source must get credit and the
citation must be provided for the secondary source. For example, you are reading Johnson’s
article and in the article, Johnson cites Starnes’ work. If you want to use Starnes’ ideas for your
paper, you need to give credit to the original author (Starnes) and where you found the
information (Johnson’s article). On the reference page, list Johnson’s article in the correct
format. Within the paper, use an introductory phrase, as shown in the example below, to credit
Starnes’ work; in the citation, use as cited in and the usual citation information. This lets the
reader know the information was from Johnson but originated with Starnes.
Starnes’ research (as cited in Johnson, 2009, p. 17) shows the benefits of using eye protection.
Works with More than One Author
When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs within the text.
When a work has three, four, and five authors, cite all authors in the first citation and cite only
the first author’s name followed by et al. in subsequent citations.
When a work has six or more authors, cite only the first author’s name followed by et al. in the
first and subsequent citations.
Twedel and McDonough (2009) find that the lake is clean (p. 17).
(Twedel & McDonough, 2009, p. 17).
Use as first citation in text
Yudkin, Brown and Smith (2009) say it will be cold (p. 17).
(Yudkin, Brown, & Smith, 2009, p. 17).
Use in subsequent citations
Yudkin et al. (2009) say the ball is round (p. 17).
(Yudkin et al., 2009, p. 17).
According to Calhoun et al., (2009) flowers irritate allergies (p. 17).
(Calhoun et al., 2009, p. 17).