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than one discipline. Therefore, some of the content may not be relevant for the
work the laborers of a particular discipline are going to carry out. This makes it
more complex for laborers to extract the information they need. It is important to
note that BIM/4D-based clash detection is improving the coordination of drawings
(Khanzode et al., 2007). However, this improvement has not adjusted the format
and content of the drawings to make it easier for laborers to find the relevant
information in each of the relevant drawings. On the other hand, poor
communication skills also lower the productivity at the jobsite (Makulsawatudom
et al., 2004) which is worsened by language barriers, low formal education levels,
cultural differences, and the noisy environment.
- Workface questions: During a previous study on jobsite communication
(Mourgues et al., 2007), we observed that traditional verbal instructions lead to
many questions during the execution of the work such as: how do I set the forms in
a column with that shape How many panels do I need for that part of the wall
How far from my reference point is that column These questions reduce labor
productivity as they take time to be answered and affect the product quality when
laborers make wrong assumptions instead of looking for an answer. From our
observation/participation on three projects, we classified these questions in 4
o Drawings: related to drawing interpretation, clarity and completeness (e.g.,
dimensions, locations, details).
o Instructions: related to work procedures.
o Equipment and tools: related to equipment and tools needed to perform
o Material quantities: related to what and how much material is needed for
- Rework: Kaming et al. (1997) identified poor instructions as the second cause of
rework in Indonesia. Also, the workface questions increase the rework as,
sometimes, laborers make assumptions that lower the quality of the work.