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Contract of Personal Accident and Health Insurance
10 CONTRACT OF PERSONAL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH INSURANCE
ness is concerned, and the earliest efforts at policy drafting were
by men with no experience in the practical operation of the busi-
ness, no data to guide them, no real knowledge of probable costs
nor adequate appreciation of relative risks. They often worked
under a great fear of unknown hazards and usually had limited
financial resources with which to face untoward results. More-
over, while a few old-line companies, managed by trained insur-
ance men, engaged in the business, the bulk of pioneering was
done by many newly organized companies, associations, and
so-called fraternal organizations, managed by men with little or
no insurance training or background and drawn fresh from other
businesses. Policy drafting, therefore, began as a process of
experimentation by inexperienced men whose aim was to make
attractive offerings to the public while safeguarding their com-
panies against disaster from the uncertainties of a venture into
an uncharted field. Above all, they saw dimly the fearsome ele-
ments of adverse selection, moral hazard and the machinations
of the unscrupulous or predatory.
Early Exclusions o] Coverage
The early fear of the unknown revealed itself in the many limi-
tations put upon the scope of the insurance. A policy would
purport to insure basically against accidental injuries but would
contain a limiting provision excluding, for example, injuries due
to voluntary exposure to danger; contributory negligence; viola-
tion of law, or of the rules of any corporation; walking or being
on a railroad bridge or roadbed ; inhaling gas ; poison or anything
accidentally or otherwise taken, administered, absorbed or in-
haled ; lifting ; over-exertion ; fighting; wrestling ; playing foot-
ball or polo; bicycling; sunstroke or freezing; getting on or off
of conveyances ; riding on the platform of a car ; or injuries inten-
tionally inflicted by another, or sustained while under the influ-
ence of intoxicants, or while failing to exercise due care and
diligence; or injuries of which there should be no external mark,
the body itself not to be deemed such mark; or injuries due
partly or wholly to fits, vertigo, somnambulism, or disease or
infirmity of any kind.
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