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Little is gained if confinement merely replaces one routine with another. The subject should not be
provided with any routine to which he can adapt. Neither should detention become monotonous to
the point where the subject becomes apathetic. Apathy is a very effective defense against
"questioning". Constantly disrupting patterns will cause him to become disoriented and to
experience feelings of fear and helplessness.
It is important to determine if the subject has been detained previously, how often, how long, under
what circumstances, and whether he was subjected to "questioning". Familiarity with detention or
even with isolation reduces the effect.
C. Deprivation of Sensory Stimuli
Solitary confinement acts on most persons as a powerful stress. A person cut off from external
sensory stimuli turns his awareness inward and projects his unconscious outward. The symptoms
most commonly produced by solitary confinement are superstition, intense love of any other living
thing, perceiving inanimate objects as alive, hallucinations, and delusions. Deliberately causing
these symptoms is a serious impropriety and to use prolonged solitary confinement for the purpose
of extracting information in questioning violates policy.
Although conditions identical to those of solitary confinement for the purpose of "questioning" have
not been duplicated for scientific experimentation, a number of experiments have been conducted
with subjects who volunteered to be placed in "sensory deprivation tanks". They were suspended in
water and wore black-out masks, which enclosed the entire head and only allowed breathing. They
heard only their own breathing and some faint sounds of water from the piping.
Summarize the Results of These Experiments:
1. Extreme Deprivation of sensory stimuli induces unbearable stress and anxiety and is a form
of torture. It's use constitutes a serious impropriety and violates policy. The more complete
the deprivation, the more rapidly and deeply the subject is affected.
2. The stress and anxiety become unbearable for most subjects. They have a growing need for
physical and social stimuli. How much they are able to stand depends upon the
psychological characteristics of the individual. Now let me relate this to the "questioning"
situation. As the "questioner" becomes linked in the subject's mind with human contact and
meaningful activity, the anxiety lessens. The "questioner" can take advantage of this
relationship by assuming a benevolent role.
3. Some subjects progressively lose touch with reality, focus inwardly, and produce delusions,
hallucinations and other pathological effects. In general, the more well-adjusted a subject is,
the more he is affected by deprivation. Neurotic and psychotic subjects are comparatively
unaffected or show decreases in anxiety.
D. Threats and Fear
The threat of coercion usually weakens or destroys resistance more effectively than coercion itself.
For example, the threat to inflict pain can trigger fears more damaging than the immediate sensation
of pain. In fact, most people underestimate their capacity to withstand pain. In general, direct
physical brutality creates only resentment, hostility, and further defiance.
The effectiveness of a threat depends on the personality of the subject, whether he believes the
"questioner" can and will carry out the threat, and on what he believes to be the reason for the
threat. A threat should be delievered coldly, not shouted in anger, or made in reponse to the
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