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3.Only a member of the Regionalist party would oppose the bill for a new recycling law that
would protect the environment from industrial interests. Ellen cannot be a member of the
Regionalist party because she supports the bill.
Which of the following statements points out why the conclusion is invalidly drawn
A. Regionalist party members have organized to oppose industrial interests on several other
issues.
B. Industrial interests need not oppose the protection of the environment.
C. Past attempts to protect the environment through recycling laws have failed.
D. It is possible that some Regionalist party members may not oppose the bill for a new
recycling law.
E. Ellen has attended programs and distributed literature prepared by the Regionalist party.
Explanation:
The fact that only a member of the Regionalist party would oppose the bill does not imply that
all members of the Regionalist party would oppose the bill. Based on the initial statement,
Ellen may or may not be a member of the Regionalist party if she supports the bill. For the
conclusion to be valid, the initial statement would have to read, “All members of the
Regionalist party would oppose the bill for a new recycling law…” Thus, the choice of D makes
the relevant logical point.
The first three answer choices are incorrect. Each presents at best a piece of background
information without being specifically related to the question of whether all Regionalist party
members would oppose the bill. The last answer choice is also incorrect. Ellen’s attending
programs and distributing literature prepared by the Regionalist party might appear to make it
likely that the conclusion is false. But suggesting that the conclusion might be false does not
help show why the conclusion is invalidly drawn.
4.Roberta was born in 1967, and so in 1976 she was nine years old. It is clear from this
example that the last two digits of a person’s birth year will be the same as the last two digits
of the year of that person’s ninth birthday, except that the position of the digits will be
reversed.
Which of the following is the best criticism of the assertions made
A. The generalization is valid only for those birth years that do not end in two zeroes.
B. The example does not exhibit the same principle as is expressed in the generalization
based on it.
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